-- MarkCutkosky - 18 Jul 2003

Start this page off with an old email from Kevin Hufford with some interesting links and notes

From: "Kevin Hufford" <khufford@stanford.edu> To: <cutkosky@cdr.stanford.edu> Subject: Robot climbing stuff Date: Tue, 21 Jan 2003 13:01:00 -0800

Blatta orientalis

Oriental cockroach is now found throughout the world. It is not as good at climbing vertical surfaces as the German cockroach


The (http://www.sneaker.net.au/docs/encyclo/G1.HTM#AMERICAN) American cockroach is larger than the British species, and both sexes are fully winged. The (http://www.sneaker.net.au/docs/encyclo/A5.HTM#GERMAN) German species is very much smaller, and both sexes are winged and it also has the ability to climb smooth surfaces such as window panes.


A good tip is to smear vasaline around the top two inches of the terrarium to keep them from climbing out.


Autumn lab (Lewis and Clark college) (Full Ph.D. student '95, postdoc to '98)


Claws on cockroach foot


Sacs on cockroach foot


R.J. Full, K. Autumn and J. Chung*. 1999. Rapid negotiation of rough terrain by the death-head cockroach. Amer. Zool. 38(5): 81A.

Full, R. J., J. Glasheen, K. Autumn, A. Jagger*, and A. Yamauchi*. 1998. Dynamics of cockroach climbing: vaulting, bouncing or powering over a step? Amer. Zool. 37(5): 177A

K. Autumn, S.T. Hsieh*, D.M. Dudek, J. Chen*, C. Chitaphan*, and R.J. Full. 1999. Dynamics of geckos running vertically. Amer. Zool. 38(5): 84A.

Autumn K. 2002 (in press). The gecko effect: dynamic dry adhesive microstructures. Amer. Zool.

Full and his colleagues have a patent pending, and UC Berkeley engineer Ron Fearing is working to fabricate synthetic gecko setae, which could be ready as an adhesive in a year or two.

Robots inspired by Full's


incl. Mecho-gecko Mecho-gecko video


Best link for published work showing MechoGecko or Mecho-Gecko and BullGecko or Bull-Gecko: http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/figsonly/209/2/260

Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 260-272 (2006)
Published by The Company of Biologists 2006 
doi: 10.1242/jeb.01980
Dynamics of geckos running vertically
K. Autumn1, S. T. Hsieh2,*, D. M. Dudek2, J. Chen2, C. Chitaphan2 and R. J. Full2,

Cockroach Nervous System


(saved as Cockroach Nervous System.pdf under bio)

http://scisearch2.lanl.gov/cgi-bin/w3vdkhgw?qryJJB.rayEK;2002-0356367 Functional morphology of the forelimb of tupaiids (Mammalia, Scandentia) and its phylogenetic implications Sargis EJ JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY , v. 253(#1) pp. 10-42 JUL 2002


Obstacle climbing

Ritzmann @ CWRU





Finite element analysis of strains in a Blaberus cockroach leg during climbing


Kaliyamoorthy, Sathya; Zill, Sasha N.; Quinn, Roger D.; Ritzmann, Roy E.; Choi, Jongung


Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, United States


IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems ; 2001; v.2, p.833-838

Journal Abbr.:

IEEE Int Conf Intell Rob Syst


2001 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2001 Oct 29-Nov 3, Maui, HI, United States



Report No.:



The legs of animals and walking vehicles are subject to substantial changes in loading in climbing over obstacles. Sense organs (campaniform sensilla) on cockroach legs detect these loads through strains in the exoskeleton. Signals that might be sent by the sense organs during climbing were predicted by applying forces to a finite element model of the leg in directions determined from kinematic studies. The model included an accurate, three-dimensional reconstruction of the leg segment (trochanter) that contains an array of these sensors. Calculated strains generated at different phases of climbing suggest that some groups of sensors in the front leg, that show little activity in walking, are strongly activated in climbing. These groups could provide signals to aid in adapting walking patterns to the changing forces encountered in climbing. (17 Refs.)


(saved under Bio\Kaliyamoorthy_Zill_FEAofcockroachleg_IROS01.pdf)


You've probably already found these among the web chaff:


Note: this was posted at least by June 2000 (see below link) http://robotic.editthispage.com/discuss/msgReader$54?mode=topic


Nagakubo, ICRA '94

Walking and running of the quadruped wall-climbing robot Nagakubo, A.; Hirose, S.; Robotics and Automation, 1994. Proceedings., 1994 IEEE International Conference on , 8-13 May 1994 Page(s): 1005 -1012 vol.2

(Under Robot Climbing\NINJA\ Hirose_Nagakubo_ICRA94.pdf)

>Here's the one by Shigeo Hirose that I saw in Tokyo. He is a long time

>famous robotics designer (kind of a hybrid between Bernie Roth and

>Vic Schienman at Stanford)

Quadruped Wall Climbing Robot (NINJA-I, -II) http://mozu.mes.titech.ac.jp/research/walk/NINJA/NINJA.html

Wall Climbing Robot With Scanning-Type Suction Cups II http://www.fzi.de/divisions/ipt/WMC/preface/node342.html

>A contest:


>I wonder what was entered?

Singapore Robotic Games; couldn't find any technical information on the entries on the web, there was supposedly a competition in '02 as well

Singapore Robotic Games


Wall-climbing robot race (Singapore 98)


Wall-climbing robot race rules (Singapore Robotic Games 2003)


(can't seem to find any pics or info on past wall-climbing entries

Two-link SUCTION


Xiao, Controller Design for an Autonomous Wall-climbing

Micro-robot Based on TMS320LF2407? DSP Chip


Jizhong Xiao, Mark Minor, Hans Dulimarta, Ning Xi, R. Mukherjee, R. L. Tummala, " Modeling and COntrol of an Under-actuated Miniature Crawler Robot", Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Maui, Hawaii, USA, OCt 29-Nov. 03, 2001.

Jizhong Xiao, Hans Dulimarta, Ning Xi, R. Lal Tummala, Controller Design for an Autonomous Wall-climbing Micro-robot Based on TI 320LF2407 DSP Chip, DSPS Fest 2000, August 2-4, 2000, Houston, Texas.

Jizhong Xiao, Hans Dulimarta, Zhenyu Yu, Ning Xi, R. Lal Tummala, DSP Solution for Wall-climber Micro-robot Control Using TMS320LF2407? Chip, The 43rd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, August 8-11, 2000, Lansing, Michigan.

>A. Nishi and H. Miyagi, "Simulation and test of a flight type wall-climbing robot",
>Proc. World Automation Congress (WAC'96), pp.569-576, 1996

And perhaps we should just buy this one http://www.terrifictoy.com/store/climbatron.html

Magnetic wall-"driving" robot




Self-contained wall-climbing robot with closed link mechanism


Ryu, S. W.; Park, J. J.; Ryew, S. M.; Choi, H. R.


School of Mechanical Engineering Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyonggi-do, 440-746, South Korea


IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems ; 2001; v.2, p.839-844

Journal Abbr.:

IEEE Int Conf Intell Rob Syst


2001 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2001 Oct 29-Nov 3, Maui, HI, United States



Report No.:



In this paper a self-contained wall-climbing robot called MRWALLSPECT-II, is presented. The robot has characteristic features in the kinematic design of the leg with closed link mechanism. It reduces the number of actuators compared to the previous ones and makes it possible to have high force-to-weight ratio. Those are enabled by adopting a simple and robust gait pattern mimicking the living creature. Also, as the robot is designed to be a self-contained one, it includes all the components such as air compressors, vacuum generators, an embedded controller, batteries, a CCD camera, sensors, motors and electronics in itself without any tether cable. Its communication with the operating site in the ground is conducted through wireless LAN. In this paper, its principles of design and configuration of the robot are introduced. (12 Refs.)


(under Ryu_Park_self-contained_wall-climbing_IROS01.pdf)



R.M. Voyles, "TerminatorBot: A Robot with Dual-Use Arms for Manipulation and Locomotion," in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, v 1, pp. 61-66. http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~voyles/Pubs/icra2000.termbot.pdf

(Under Robot Climbing\UMN Scout and Ranger)

(http://scisearch2.lanl.gov/cgi-bin/w3vdkhgw?qryYIBZrayEK;2000-0006822) Concerning a technique for increasing stability of climbing robots Akinfiev T, Armada M, Prieto M, Uquillas M JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT & ROBOTIC SYSTEMS , v. 27(#1-2) pp. 195-209 JAN 2000

[PS]www.eecs.umich.edu/~hkomsuog/research/Publications/Published/ICRA2001.ps File Format: Adobe PostScript? - <>View as Text ... We in- troduce two new controllers, one for climbing inclined sur- faces with ... A companion paper [11] surveys aspects of cockroach lo- comotion that inform ...

saved under Rhex\ICRA2001.htm

8th IEEE Conference on Mechatrinics and Machine Vision in Practice

Luk, Intelligent Legged Climbing Service Robot For

Remote Inspection And Maintenance In

Hazardous Environments


(Under Robot Climbing\M2VIPRobugII.pdf)

@misc{ galt-intelligent, author = "Luk Cooke Galt", title = "Intelligent Legged Climbing Service Robot For Remote Maintenance Applications In Hazardous Environments",

url = "citeseer.nj.nec.com/505013.html" }


Q.X. Zhang, Z.G. Ren, Z.W Zhao, "Development of a 3W Window-Cleaning Robot for High-Rise Buildings", 8th IEEE Conference on Mechatrinics and Machine Vision in Practice, 27-29 August 2001, Hong Kong, pp257-260

Y. Wang, H. Shao, "Wall climbing robot for cleaning and painting", Proceedings of the 2 nd International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, Portsmouth, UK, September 1999

Tso S.K., Fung Y.H., Chow W.L., Zong G.H., and Liu R., "Design and implementation of a glasswall cleaning robot for high-rise buildings", Proceedings of the World Automation Congress Eighth International Symposium on Robotics with Applications, Maui, Hawaii, June 11-16, 2000, paper ID: ISORA123.

T. P. Sattar, M. Alaoui, S. Chen and B. Bridge, "A Magnetically Adhering Wall Climbing Robot to Perform Continuous Welding of Long Seams and Non-Destructively Test the Welds on the Hull of a Container Ship", 8th IEEE Conference on Mechatrinics and Machine Vision in Practice, 27-29 August 2001, Hong Kong, pp408-414

Robug II: An intelligent wall climbing robot Luk, B.L.; Collie, A.A.; Billingsley, J.; Robotics and Automation, 1991. Proceedings., 1991 IEEE International Conference on , 9-11 Apr 1991 Page(s): 2342 -2347 vol.3

A wall climbing robot with closed link mechanism Choi, H.R.; Ryew, S.M.; Kang, T.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, H.M.; Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2000. (IROS 2000). Proceedings. 2000 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on , Volume: 3 , 2000 Page(s): 2006 -2011 vol.3

17Self-contained wall-climbing robot with closed link mechanism Ryu, S.W.; Park, J.J.; Ryew, S.M.; Choi, H.R.; Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2001. Proceedings. 2001 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on , Volume: 2 , 2001 Page(s): 839 -844 vol.2

20A six-legged climbing robot for high payloads Grieco, J.C.; Prieto, M.; Armada, M.; Gonzalez de Santos, P.; Control Applications, 1998. Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on , Volume: 1 , 1-4 Sep 1998 Page(s): 446 -450 vol.1

5Study of walking robot for 3 dimensional terrain Arikawa, K.; Hirose, S.; Robotics and Automation, 1995. Proceedings., 1995 IEEE International Conference on , Volume: 1 , 21-27 May 1995 Page(s): 703 -708 vol.1

Mechanical design of a quadruped robot for horizontal ground to vertical wall movement Alsalameh, A.A.S.I.; Amin, S.H.M.; Mamat, R.; TENCON 2000. Proceedings , Volume: 1 , 2000 Page(s): 213 -217 vol.1

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